What is Azoospermia?

Azoospermia is a medical condition characterised by the complete absence of sperm in a man’s ejaculate. It is a significant concern for those aspiring to start a family, as the absence of sperm in the ejaculate can hinder natural conception. Azoospermia can be classified into two primary categories:

  1. Obstructive Azoospermia: This form of Azoospermia is characterised by a physical obstruction that prevents sperm from reaching the semen. While the testes produce sperm normally, obstructions can occur in the reproductive tract, preventing sperm from being ejaculated. Obstructive azoospermia offers a better prognosis for fertility with appropriate treatment.
  2. Non-obstructive Azoospermia: In non-obstructive Azoospermia, there is a deficiency in sperm production within the testes. Even though there is no physical obstruction, the testes may not produce enough sperm to be detected in the ejaculate. Non-obstructive azoospermia treatment can be more challenging, and fertility outcomes may vary.

Causes of Azoospermia

Azoospermia can result from a range of factors, including:

  1. Genetic Factors: Some genetic conditions can affect sperm production, leading to Azoospermia.
  1. Hormonal Imbalances: Hormonal disturbances, such as low testosterone levels or high prolactin levels, can disrupt sperm production.
  1. Obstruction or Blockage: In the case of obstructive Azoospermia, blockages in the reproductive tract can prevent the release of sperm into the ejaculate. These blockages may result from infections, scarring, or congenital conditions.
  1. Medical Treatments: Medical treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy can impair sperm production.
  2. Varicocele: A varicocele, an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum, can lead to heat buildup in the testicles, negatively affecting sperm production.

How is Azoospermia Diagnosed?

The diagnosis of azoospermia is typically confirmed through a comprehensive semen analysis. This analysis involves the examination of a semen sample to check for the presence or absence of sperm.

If no sperm are found, further diagnostic steps are taken, including hormonal blood tests, genetic testing, and imaging studies.

Common Azoospermia Treatment Options

BM Cosmetic offers a range of treatment options for azoospermia, tailored to the specific type and cause:

1. Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA):

MESA is a specialised surgical procedure designed to retrieve sperm in cases of obstructive azoospermia. In this condition, sperm production is normal, but there is a physical blockage that prevents the release of sperm into the ejaculate.

The epididymis, a small tubular structure in the male reproductive tract, is the primary site for sperm storage and maturation.

During MESA, a microsurgical technique is employed to collect sperm directly from the epididymis. These retrieved sperm can then be used for assisted reproductive techniques.

2. Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA):

TESA is a procedure that is recommended when it comes to non-obstructive azoospermia treatment. In this type of azoospermia, there is a deficiency in sperm production within the testicles.

During TESA, a fine needle is used to biopsy the testicular tissue, retrieving sperm directly from the testicles. The retrieved sperm can be utilised in assisted reproductive techniques to facilitate fertilisation. TESA is particularly beneficial when sperm production within the testes is insufficient for natural conception.

3. Hormone Therapy:

In some cases of azoospermia where hormonal imbalances are identified as a contributing factor, hormone therapy may be recommended. Hormone replacement therapy or medications are used to restore hormonal levels to their normal range.

By addressing hormonal imbalances, this azoospermia treatment option can improve sperm production and function, offering the possibility of achieving natural conception.

4. In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) with Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI):

IVF with ICSI is a highly effective assisted reproductive technique commonly utilised in cases where azoospermia cannot be treated directly or when other treatment options have been exhausted.

During this procedure, eggs are retrieved from the female partner, and a single healthy sperm is directly injected into each egg. ICSI bypasses the need for sperm to naturally fertilise the egg, making it an excellent solution for individuals with azoospermia.

After fertilisation, the resulting embryos are transferred to the woman’s uterus, where they can implant and develop.


At BM Cosmetic, we understand the emotional and physical challenges that can come with a diagnosis of azoospermia. Our team of experienced specialists, headed by Dr Rajinikanth T, is dedicated to providing azoospermia treatment in Chennai, compassionate support, and advanced reproductive technologies to help individuals and couples overcome azoospermia.

Call 9952099620 to book your appointment and find out how our team can help you.


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